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Wal-Mart and Carrefour Contrastive Analysis of China Logistics

2010-5-24 9:43:51

Wal-Mart and Carrefour Contrastive Analysis of China Logistics
  Logistics management including warehousing, transportation, packaging, content distribution and other aspects of any retail business is concerned, the precise management of each stage is critical, of which commodity distribution chain management to improve performance for the main important .
  First, Wal-Mart is known for its logistics capabilities

  As the first in the world 500 - Wal-Mart in China's rapidly expanding market, more and more people to look to focus on Wal-Mart's secret of success. People usually rapid transfer, VMI (vendor managed inventory), EDLP (everyday low prices) as Wal-Mart's successful three magic weapons, including the rapid transport of goods is often considered Wal-Mart's core competitiveness. So many companies have to follow suit, and vigorously accelerate the pace of construction of distribution centers, as long as enhance the delivery of products and distribution management, you can find the same as Wal-Mart business in the fierce battle in the essence of success. However, after a period of operation, the effect is unsatisfactory, reason is mainly distorted Wal-Mart's operations management. Wal-Mart has been able to, the following main reasons:

  Unique historical background of 1962, when Wal-Mart's first store opened in a small town in Arkansas, because of its remoteness, long distances, few suppliers are willing for their delivery, so, Sam? Wharton not Bentonville headquarters are not set up the first distribution center, apparently, a shop can not alone support a distribution center operating costs, then to the distribution center as the core, around 500 km a day trip around the area that is rapidly opening shop. After the success and rapid replication of the operating mode. The same period of Kmart, Wu Erke and other large chain, basic in the United States cities, a large number of dealers to provide them with comprehensive professional services, logistics, etc., and therefore would not be delivery of goods as their core competitiveness.

  Strong technical background information system with the rapid development of IT, Wal-Mart, the fastest of the world-class information technology into practice, the cost of more than 700 million U.S. dollars in communications systems, is the nation's largest civilian electronic information system , even more than the telecom giant - AT & T, its data processing capacity after the United States Department of Defense, EDI (electronic data interchange system) and bar the use of modern logistics technologies, more global sales for each store analysis, product distribution and inventory management and so provides the most powerful weapon. Other hand, the domestic retail enterprises, small number of stores, sales of low, single-store profit margins, with little strength to invest in improved information systems. The development of a system as little as a few million to as many as tens of millions or even billions of dollars, so a lot of small retail businesses Despair.

  Large number of stores currently nearly 4,000 U.S. stores, distribution centers has more than 30 shows that more than 100 stores to support a huge modern distribution center costs. Insufficient number of hours in the stores, distribution centers tend to be a huge cost of the financial burden of enterprises. When Wal-Mart entered China, they also copied the U.S. business model, in Guangdong and Tianjin, and set up two distribution centers. After years of painstaking efforts, so far, Wal-Mart's overall profitability has not been achieved, many of the industry that instead of copying the operating mode of the United States. Most U.S. stores location in town, opened shop in China, mostly in urban centers, a large number of providers of professional services, focused on distribution rather difficult to reflect the high efficiency.

  Second, Carrefour is directly supplied by the model supplier

  Wal-Mart's merchandise distribution model is the vast majority of domestic firms can not imitate. And Wal-Mart is different from the other one in the world retail carrier - Carrefour, choice is the opposite of commodity distribution model. Because the location of most of Carrefour have focused on Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and inland provincial capital cities, and emphasized that "full authority to the manager as the core," operating mode, so basically the delivery of products to suppliers sent the main straight, the main benefits of this are the following:

   Fast delivery, easy as suppliers of resources are more concentrated in the same city, morning goods orders is likely to arrive at, will result in the loss of sales of goods out of stock costs significantly reduced. In order to reduce capital and enhance product display space occupied by the use of efficient, super-malls have taken the basic "low-volume, multi-frequency" of the order principle, the same city suppliers to more effectively help this policy implementation. In contrast, Wal-Mart's many stores adhere to the centralized distribution model, due to the road because, although strong support for information systems, but the rate of arrival of goods is still relatively slow, so in some stores, " This product is temporarily out of "the small article in the shelves everywhere.

  Return to facilitate reverse logistics goods, the retail industry with outdated, obsolete and so the most important means of slow-moving merchandise. If the retailer uses a direct-vendor delivery model of goods, retailers and suppliers are very frequent contacts and contacts, so goods Returns processing is very fast, but if a central distribution model, reverse logistics have been a significant part increase, so the relative speed slows.

   Third, the fundamental difference is that different regions

  Wal-Mart and Carrefour's merchandise distribution model, the basic domestic retail enterprises on behalf of the two different business ideas. As the advantages and disadvantages, so most of the more mature retail enterprises according to their corresponding product feature developed distribution programs:

  Shows the classification of retail formats, store location, store number, store it in warehouses with, are affecting the retail merchandise delivery model important factors. To sum up, the main aspects can be considered from the following:

  Central City should direct delivery: the development of immature logistics industry in China at this stage, the eastern and western, coastal and inland economic development away from large, relevant laws and regulations are not sound, thinking of local protectionism in some areas are more serious differences in preferences across consumer goods large, the logistics industry to foreign investment have not yet fully developed, combined with the number of stores is not very large, these factors led to a nationwide distribution and delivery of goods will have low efficiency. Carrefour has become the fastest-growing Chinese market, the best retailers benefit, core competence is to the center manager performance management system, the resulting changes can be localized to adapt quickly to the market mode of operation.

  The use of direct-vendor shops, are more prone to a problem is the homogenization of the product mix. Present the basic business of all domestic cities have turned white-hot competition, product margins are declining each year, if all goods are from the local procurement of goods would be hard to realize the difference. Therefore, a central city retailers adhere to local procurement based should also be appropriate to maintain the central procurement of commodities, which account for some of the goods to the total amount that between 20% -30%, mainly imported goods, its own Some fashion brands and products, mainly seasonal merchandise.

  Second-tier cities should Distribution: suppliers of second tier cities is more limited resources, mainly in fresh and some local characteristics of the main food suppliers. If the most goods from the central city can not delivery the goods to local stores attractive to consumers will inevitably decline. Therefore, other large retailers, Lianhua general location of the first shop in central cities, central city procurement teams and suppliers of resources, more mature, the further expansion of second-tier cities, this can be more effectively from the product structure to ensure the chain characteristics. Of course, the choice of storage and transportation mode, there are two kinds of self-employment and outsourcing models to choose from, depending on the company's financial strength and whether there is a wealth of logistics management experience, if the companies do not have enough fund to construct the storage and fleet, or low self-efficiency, less business, and lack of mature experience, we can consider the business outsourced to third-party logistics companies, making full use of social division of labor cost savings.

   Community shops, discount stores have a high distribution centers: community stores, discount stores general smaller, mainly engaged in fresh, food, cleaning and other daily consumer goods, shopping convenience is the basis for the survival of these shops, if the lack of out of stock, bound for such a tremendous impact on store sales. Therefore, the timeliness of replenishment of these stores to become one of the most important. However, the size and type of store space is extremely limited, it is impossible for a large number of Tunhuo, therefore timely replenishment distribution center constitutes a key to the success of such stores. To achieve this objective, usually the following means:

  The right of distribution center location, can reduce the delivery time and improve the efficiency of product distribution. Imagine if Dia discount stores in Beijing, the number reached 300, with one day get a fresh milk and other Japanese goods, the location of each distribution center can bring a store 10 minutes of the effects of savings, then the guarantee to The immediate significance goods is very important.

  Determine a reasonable distribution lines, distribution points for greater stores more community help. Evaluation of specific programs can be used for qualitative analysis, mathematical models can also be used for quantitative analysis. While of course consider the variety of goods stores, specifications, quantity, time requirements, distribution centers and other existing disposal capacity factors.

  Reasonable loading of vehicles. The store's sales of different orders are not quite the same. Implementation of light and heavy loading, both the vehicle fully loaded, can take full advantage of the effective volume of vehicles, greatly reducing transportation costs.

  Establish and improve the computer management system. In the community shop logistics operations, sorting, picking to 60% of the total labor over, and more prone to error. If picking in the use of computer management system, you can make picking fast, accurate and efficient, to improve productivity, save labor, reduce logistics costs.

  To sum up, what kind of distribution methods, mainly depending on the needs of stores under various conditions have been the actual distribution costs and efficiency. As long as a clear own market position, to grasp the precise needs of communication with suppliers do the work, it does not matter with what distribution methods.